新概念英语第三册课堂笔记第三十八课 The first calender 最早的日历
【New words and expressions】 生词和短语
●calendar n. 历法，日历
●historian n. 历史学家
●unique adj. 无与伦比的
●steadily adv. 不断地
●solely adv. 唯一地
●video n. 录像
●CD-ROM n. (只读)光盘驱动器
●bewilder v. 令人眼花缭乱
●deduce v. 推断，推理
●scanty adj. 不足的，贫乏的
●clue n. 线索
●insignificant adj. 不重要的
●shed v. 使流出，泻
●advent n. 出现，到来，来临
●agriculture n. 农业
●assumption n. 假定，设想
●dot n. 小圆点
●symbol n. 符号
●engrave v. 雕刻
●ivory n. 象牙制品
●mammoth n. (古)长毛象
●phase n. 月相，天相
●tusk n. 獠牙，长牙、象牙
●primitive adj. 原始的
●nomad n. 游牧民
●depict v. 描画，描绘
●correlate v. 使相互联系
■calendar n. 历法，日历
■historian n. 历史学家
This is a historic speech.
historical research 历史研究
■unique adj. 无与伦比的
Speech is a unique human ability
unique 不能接受比较级，可以接受quite, almost, nearly, surely, really等修饰，但不能接受rather,very等词的修饰。
Eg: This is a matter of especial importance.
This is a especially important matter.
Pineapples have particular flavour. 菠萝有特别的味道。
Eg: The warm weather is exceptional for Jamuary.
■steadily adv. 不断地
■solely adv. 唯一地
■video n. 录像
■CD-ROM n. (只读)光盘驱动器
■bewilder v. 令人眼花缭乱
Eg: she was bewildered by so many beautiful dresses.
Eg: I am puzzled by the problem.
Eg: He is perplexed for the answer.
in bewilderment 茫然不知所措
■deduce v. 推断，推理
deduce: determine or decide sth. by given facts.
Eg: I deduce the conclusion from the given facts.
deduce …from 从…中推论，推断
Eg: What can you infer from the text?
deduce ==> (ant.) indece 归纳
■scanty adj. 不足的，贫乏的
scanty: too few, not enough
scanty knowledge 一知半解
a scanty crop 欠收
be scanty of sth 奇缺
be short of 短缺
Eg: The village school is scanty of textbooks. 这乡村学校奇缺教材。
be want of = in need of 需要……
■clue n. 线索
■insignificant adj. 不重要的
■shed v. 使流出，泻
shed: pour out
shed tears 泪流满面
shed light 发光
shed light on sb. 启发，启迪
shed one’s blood for country 为祖国而流血。
shed one's clothes 脱去衣服
■advent n. 出现，到来，来临
advent: coming or arrival
at the advent of winter 在冬天到来的时候
at the advent of 在…到来的时候
since the advent of 自从…的到来
■agriculture n. 农业
■assumption n. 假定，设想
■dot n. 小圆点
■symbol n. 符号
■engrave v. 雕刻
■ivory n. 象牙制品
■mammoth n. (古)长毛象
■phase n. 月相，天相
■tusk n. 獠牙，长牙、象牙
■primitive adj. 原始的
■nomad n. 游牧民
■depict v. 描画，描绘
■correlate v. 使相互联系
Lesson 38 The first calender 最早的日历
Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
What is the importance of the dots, lines, and symbols engraved on stone, bones and ivoury?
Future historians will be in a unique position when they come to record the history of our own times. They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates. What is more they will not have to rely solely on the written word. Films, videos. CDs and CD-ROMs are just some of the bewildering amount of information they will have. They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action. But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task. He has to deduce what he can from the few scanty clues available. Even seemingly insignificant remains can shed interesting light on the history of early man.
Up to now, historians have assumed that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, for then man was faced with a real need to understand something about the seasons. Recent scientific evidence seems to indicate that this assumption is incorrect.(仅提供部分文章)
in the unique position 处于无以伦比，独一无二的情况
come to: start, begin
背熟：They will hardly know which facts to select from the great mass of evidence that steadily accumulates.
select from 从……中进行选择(同类中)
1.当在两者中选一个时只能用choose, 即choose between
Eg: We have to choose between leaving early and paying for taxi.
Eg: I'll let you choose where we should go to eat.
3.choose to do 只能用choose.
Eg: What invariably happens is that a great number of things choose to go wrong at precisely the same moment.(L33 )
He has deliberately chosen to lead the life he leads and is fully aware of the consequences. (L27)
great mass of == too much == agreat amount of
evidence 不可数名词;不能手a great many, a large number of
Eg: She selected a blue dress from the wardrobe.
You have been selected to present us on the committee.
what is more 更有甚者，furthremore,moreover 是的意思
what is worse 更糟糕的是
rely on ==count on ==depend on 依靠，指望
Eg: You can’t rely on others.
He can’t be relied on.
solely adv. 唯一地
means: only, just, nearly
背熟：They will be able, as it were, to see and hear us in action.
in action 行动中的，活动中的
as it were 可以说，似乎，好像
Eg: He is as it were a walking dictionary. 他可以说是一部活字典
Computers can never as it were lead independent lives. 电脑不能过独立的生活
as it is=in fact=in really=actually=as a matter of fact 事实上
Eg: I thought things would get better,but as it is , they are getting worse.
In many ways children lives as it were in a different world from the adults. 在许多方面，孩子们可以说过着一种与大人完全不同的生活。
But the historian attempting to reconstruct the distant past is always faced with a difficult task.
be faced with: be in the position in which one must deal with a problem or unpleasant situation.
Eg: Automobile industry is faced with a bad future now. 汽车工业正面临着令人担忧的未来。
A great many people are faced with losing their jobs. 许多人面临着失业。
In my opinion, you are faced with a problem as it were how to get enough time to study English.
The student attempting to learn English well in a year is faced with a difficult task. 企图在一年之内把英语学好的学生面临着巨大的难题。
available adj. 可利用的
Eg: I have dictionary availabe for you.
Is there a place available for us to have a chat.
I know you are in need of help, but excuse me, I don’t have any students available for you.
remains ==ruins 遗迹，遗物
shed light on=throw light on = cast light on 意思是：make a matter clear or understood 解释，说明，提示
Eg: This information shed light on the problem. 这份情报会搞清楚这一问题。
Can you shed any light on the case of the fire? 你能够解释这次火灾吗?
She will shed light on the case of stolen jewels. 好将能够揭示这次珠宝失窃案。
in the unique position
the great mass of evidence
the bewildering amount of information
what is more
as it were
be faced with
shed interestion light on
up to now = so far 到目前为止
come into being == come into existence 产生，出现
come to power 上台
come into use 开始使用
be faced with a real need to do sth. 面临着做某事的真正需要。
Eg: We are faced with a real need to learn English well.
which 引导定语从句，修饰the last Ice Age
it is connected with == it is associated with
in fact 可以替换为as it is; actually, in reality
as near as 接近
★★★Paragraph 3 remembered ★★★
historian has long been puzzled by
live by hunting and fishing
read this difficult code
it has long been known that
make a real effort to understand the seasons
【Multiple choice questions】
1 In assuming that calendars came into being with the advent of agriculture, historians made the mistake of _____ .
a. relying solely on the written word
b. disregarding the markings that early man had been responsible for
c. supposing that nomadic man had no reason to understand the seasons
d. not connecting the passage of days with the phasesof the moon
2 The scientific evidence that has recently come to light is that _____ .
a. nomads engraved the bones and tusks of the animals they killed
b. noads lived by hunting and fishing
c. nomads travelled widely in various parts of the world
d. the markings made by variousnomadic groups all have a definite pattern
3 The paintings which have been found on the walls of nomadic dwelling places _____ .
a. have taught historians something about the nomadic way of life
b. have no other content than their artistic merit
c. are not thought to be connected with an ancient calendar system
d. are invariably accompanied by odd dots, lines and symbols
4 It _____ as if they could see nad hear us in action. (ll.6-7)
a. was b. were c. should be d. will be
5 Even _____ seem insignificant remains can shed interesting … (ll.8-9)
a. they b. which c. what d. those to
6 Historians are now able to read this difficult code _____ markings made in … (ll.15-16)
a. with correlating b. having correlated c. which correlates d. for they correlate
7 _____ be a definite relation between these paintings and the …(ll.19-21)
a. It could b. There can c. There may d. It might
8 Historians have long tried to _____ dots, lines and … (l.13)
a. puzzle b. puzzle out c. riddle d. detect
9 By correlating markings made in _____ parts of the world … (ll.15-16)
a. different b. several c. many d. other
10 ---- historians have been able to read _____ . (l.16)
a. these puzzling signs b. this hard law c. thesedifficult signals d. this uneasy letter
11 Until recently historians assumed that calendars _____ with the advent of agriculture. (l.10)
a. came to existence b. came toexisting c. cme to exist d. were existential
come to +动词原形： come to record ; come to exist ; come into existence
12 The people who lived by hunting and fishing during the last Ice Age _____ .(ll.14-15)
a. wandered from place to place b. lived in villages c. first learnt to write d. learnt how to farm the land
【Key to Multiple choice questions】
1. B 2. D 3. A 4. D 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. B 9. A 10. A 11. C 12. A